How to Write a Bibliography

A bibliography is a list of materials used in creating a report or paper.  Information  for bibliographies is taken right from the source. The source is the book, magazine, encyclopedia or internet site you used. Look at the title page for the publisher, city, and author. Copyright information is usually found on the back side of the title page.                                                                                                                                       
The book or magazine title is always underlined in a bibliography.
If a citation (what you write down about your source) is more than one line long, indent the second line five spaces. 

Arrange the bibliography in alphabetical order, by the author's last name.
If there is no author listed, use the first word of the title (not "a," "an," or "the"). When there is more than one author, you may use the first author listed. 

A publisher is the company that produces the material. The "place" is the city where the publisher is located.  If the city of publication is not so famous, the name of the state or country is listed as well.

A citation is a source of information used in a report.  Bibliographic citations for books vary. These examples can help you write your bibliography for many types of book citations.

1. BOOK WITH ONE AUTHOR:                                                                           
Last Name, First Name. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.
The author is listed, last name first. The title is underlined. The city where the book is published is listed followed by a colon and the name of the publisher followed by a comma. The year the book is published is then listed followed by a period. Use the most recent copyright date. The city is usually found on the title page of the book. The copyright date is usually found on the back side of the title page.

Last Name, First Name, ed. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.
REFERENCE BOOKS:                                         
The article title is the topic you looked up.. The author's name
(if there is one) can be found at the beginning or the end of the article. 
The article is placed after the author's name and put in quotation marks.
The the title of the encyclopedia is underlined.
                                                                                                                                      4. SIGNED ARTICLES: (An article that has an author listed)
Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Name of  Encyclopedia.                    Volume number. Place: Publisher, Year.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
5. UNSIGNED ARTICLES: (An article that does not have an author listed)
"Article Title." Encyclopedia Title. Volume number. City, State:     
    Publisher, Year.
When citing a magazine or newspapers [sometimes called periodicals],
use the following formats. Periodical articles may or may not have an author.

Last Name, First Name. "Article Title." Magazine Title.
    Place: Publisher, Month, Day, Year: Page numbers used.
The author's name is given first, the name of the article, then the name of the magazine, the date of the magazine, a colon and then the page number(s). If you used the whole magazine, you do not have to put pages. If there is no author, start with the article title.

"Article Title." Newspaper Title. Month, Day, Year: Section Number
    Page Numbers Used.
If the article has an author, it is placed before the name of the article.
NON-BOOK SOURCES:                          

Title. Director. (or host or narrator) Videocassette. Publisher,
    (or Vendor) Year.
The title of the videocassette is listed first. The person who is credited on the box (the director, host, or narrator) is listed second. The type of media (a videocassette, film, or filmstrip) is listed next. The publisher and the year published are listed last.

"Article Title." Name of CD. CD-ROM. Place: Publisher, Year.
Last Name, First Name. Title of Home Page. Date. (use the date that you found the website)  <>
If the website has not author (most of them don't), use the sponsoring organization if there is one. If there is none, start with title, underlined. Then put the day, month and year that you used the website. Last comes the www address set inside caret marks < >.

Last Name, First Name. (of the person being interviewed) Interviewed by
(If you did the interview by phone, write Phone Interview by) Your First Name and Last  Name. City, State. (where you did the interview) Date. (when you did the interview)                                                                                                          
Below is a sample of what a finished bibliography looks like. They are numbered to make it easier for you to copy the sample but do not use numbers in your own bibliography. The kind of citations shown are (in order):
1. Book (with one author)
2. Book (with editor)
3. Book with no author
4. Encyclopedia (with author)
5. Encyclopedia (without author)
6. Magazine article
7. Newspaper
8. Movie
10. Website
11. Interview

1.    Aemes, David. Kindness You Can Do. New York: Holiday House, 1996.
2.    Belgrave, Amy, ed. Do Another Mitzvah Today!lCambridge, Mass.: Candlewick Press, 1996.
3.    Charity For Children. New York: Holiday House, 1996.
4.    Doheny, Zena. "Torah." World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 12. 
Chicago: World Book, 1997.
5.    "Gemarrah." Encyclopedia Judaica. Volume 19. Danbury, Connecticut: Groliers, 1994.
6.   Gomzu, Paysach. "Lashon Hara Ruins the Game." Sports Illustrated.
           December 15, 1997: 62-67.
7.   "Grandmother Saves Child From Fire." Chicago Tribune. 5 January 1998. Section 1, page 4.
8.    Inside the Third Temple. Hosted by Rabbi Steinmetz. Videocassette. Geulah Video, 1990.
9.    Katz, Mendel. "Moshiach." World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. CD-ROM.      
          Chicago: World Book, Inc., 1999.
10.  Seven Mitzvahs of Bnei Noach. 26 August 1997. <>
11.  Todah, Yosef. Interviewed by Shoshannah Todah. Los Angeles, Calif. January, 3, 2000.
Document your
sources with
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Two Super Simple Automatic Bibliography Makers:


Noodle Tools

Encarta Encyclopedia
Library Index
general searches,
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Your bibliography might look like this:

Aemes, David. Dogs Save the World. New York: Holiday House, 1996
Doheny, Zena. "Dogs in the Torah." World Book Encyclopedia. Volume 12.
    Chicago: World Book, 1997.
Gomzu, Paysach. "Dogs in Sports." Sports Illustrated. December 15, 1997: 62-67.
Katz, Mendel. "Working Dogs." Encarta. CD-ROM.  Microsoft, 2000.   
"Space Dogs." Astronauts in Cyperspace 26 August 1997.
It's a mitzvah to give credit to the person from whom you have learned an idea when you give over that idea to someone else.  It is also required by most teachers that when you copy information or use ideas from a book, magazine, encyclopedia or the internet that you document which sources you used in the form of a bibliography.

Do yourself a BIG favor! As soon as you use a source, write down all of the information you will need from it, such as the www address, the title, author, etc. Click here to print some really easy to use forms to record the information you will need to make your bibliography. If you copy down the information while you are using the source, you will save yourself a lot of time and trouble. If you don't, you may have to spend hours trying to find the book or website that you used when it comes time to make your bibliography. If you use our Document Your Source Forms it will only take a few minutes to make your bibliography.
Click here to return to the Emek Library research page.

Click here to document your sources.

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